Saulius Kaplan-Kaplanskis was born on 13 September 1919 in Vilnius. His father David had a doctor’s degree in economics, his mother was Tauba Cholem. Saulius was influenced by this academic environment and was encouraged to study. From 1929–1937, he went to the coeducational gymnasium Oświata (Enlightenment) of the Vilnius Jewish Central Committee where he distinguished himself as an extraordinarily talented pupil, both in the humanities and in the exact sciences, and successfully passed graduation examinations in mathematics and the natural sciences. In 1940, he became an auditor of economics at the Faculty of Law of Vilnius University, because he did not have a grade in Lithuanian when entering the university. The following year he passed the Lithuanian examination and became a full-time student. Before, he had spent a semester at the Vilnius Stephen Bathory University (closed in 1939) and four semesters at the Faculty of Humanities of Sorbonne University in Paris. On 19 September 1941, Saulius Kaplan-Kaplanskis was expelled from the Philology Department of the Faculty of Humanities of Vilnius University on the basis of the Order of 17 September 1941 of the Higher Education Department of the Board of Education, which was subordinate to the Nazis. In all likelihood he was killed in Vilnius. His name appears among the residents of Matas Strašūnas Street in the Vilnius Ghetto.